Some messy contextual notes on Catholicism/Christianity 300-1500 AD
  1. Catholic: means “universal”
  2. Monotheistic
  3. Triad of Three cultures ideas: Roman, Greek, Jewish
  4. Greeks and Romans gave it:
    1. Plays for morality,
    2. Symbols of dome and circle (iconography),
    3. Saints, Bldgs.,
    4. State religion w/ pope @ head, roads, technology, laws, language
  5. Jews gave it:
    1. monotheistic faith,
    2. Bible (Old Testament),
    3. rules,
    4. 10 Commandments
  6. Vulgate: common version of the Bible
  7. Christ: means “annointed”, blessed one
  8. Philosophical points: it’s all about love, be nice to one another, forgiveness, guilt
  9. So popular b/c: afterlife is rewarding, Jesus and apostles from lower class so people relate, rulers are dictators, (antiwar, afterlife, forgiveness).
  10. Edict of Milan: legalized Christianity
  11. Nicene Creed: standard Catholic (universal) philosophy
    1. Jesus was not a prophet but actually God on Earth
    2. Holy Trinity is three beings all of same vehicle;
      1. God- creator,
      2. Jesus- incarnate flesh,
      3. Ghost- spirit
    3. Heretics are people against church; “wrong believers”
  12. Structure of Church’s Authority:
    1. Jesus’s #1 Main Apostle- Peter (Petrus) (“rock”, 1st pope)
    2. “On this rock I will build this church,” said Jesus.
    3. Hierarchy:
      1. Pope
      2. Bishops
      3. Cardinals.
        1. Bishops become priests and cardinals are important bishops that elect pope.
  13. Old Testament: prophetic book (typological exegesis) leads to life of Christ
    1.   Psalms: songs
    2.   Prophecy: coming of messiah
    3.   Apocrypha: history added on, leads up to birth Christ, family tree
  14. New Testament: Gospels (teachings & stories)
    1.   Acts: apostles’ stories after life Christ
    2.   Letters: lives of apostles
    3.   Revelation: apocalypse



Early Christian, Catacomb Sts Pietro Marcelino Good Shepherd 41CE

typological exegesis



c 560 BCE

Early Christian Good Shepherd Sarcophagus c390CE

Early Christian Good Shepherd Sarcophagus c390CE detail shepherd

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus c359 CE 4x8' marble, St. Peter's, Rome, Italy, Early Christian

Abraham and Isaac Peter Arrested for Preaching after Jesus's Death Christ Enthroned Christ before Pontius Pilate Christ before Pontius Pilate
Misery of Job Fall of Man
(Adam and Eve)
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem Daniel in the Lion's Den St. Paul Lead to His Martyrdom