Some messy contextual notes on Catholicism/Christianity 300-1500 AD
      1. Catholic: means “universal”
      2. Monotheistic
      3. Triad of Three cultures ideas: Roman, Greek, Jewish
      4. Greeks and Romans gave it:
        1. Plays for morality,
        2. Symbols of dome and circle (iconography),
        3. Saints, Bldgs.,
        4. State religion w/ pope @ head, roads, technology, laws, language
      5. Jews gave it:
        1. monotheistic faith,
        2. Bible (Old Testament),
        3. rules,
        4. 10 Commandments
      6. Vulgate: common version of the Bible
      7. Christ: means “annointed”, blessed one
      8. Philosophical points: it’s all about love, be nice to one another, forgiveness, guilt
      9. So popular b/c: afterlife is rewarding, Jesus and apostles from lower class so people relate,                                                       rulers are dictators, (antiwar, afterlife, forgiveness).
      10. Edict of Milan: legalized Christianity
      11. Nicene Creed: standard Catholic (universal) philosophy
        1. Jesus was not a prophet but actually God on Earth
        2. Holy Trinity is three beings all of same vehicle;
          1. God- creator,
          2. Jesus- incarnate flesh,
          3. Ghost- spirit
        3. Heretics are people against church; “wrong believers”
      12. Structure of Church’s Authority:
        1. Jesus’s #1 Main Apostle- Peter (Petrus) (“rock”, 1st pope)
        2. “On this rock I will build this church,” said Jesus.
        3. Hierarchy:
          1. Pope
          2. Bishops
          3. Cardinals.
            1. Priests become bishops and cardinals are important bishops that elect pope.
      13. Old Testament: prophetic book (typological exegesis) leads to life of Christ
        1.   Psalms: songs
        2.   Prophecy: coming of messiah
        3.   Apocrypha: history added on, leads up to birth Christ, family tree
      14. New Testament: Gospels (teachings & stories)
        1.   Acts: apostles’ stories after life Christ
        2.   Letters: lives of apostles
        3.   Revelation: apocalypse




Early Christian, Catacomb Sts Pietro Marcelino Good Shepherd 41CE

Early Christian, Catacomb Sts Pietro Marcelino Good Shepherd 41CE

typological exegesis
Using "Old Testament" to represent the "New Testament"


c 560 BCE


Early Christian Good Shepherd Sarcophagus c390CE

Chapter 15
"I am the true vine, and my Father is the vine grower.
He takes away every branch in me that does not bear fruit, and everyone that does he prunes so that it bears more fruit.
You are already pruned because of the word that I spoke to you.
Remain in me, as I remain in you. Just as a branch cannot bear fruit on its own unless it remains on the vine, so neither can you unless you remain in me.
I am the vine, you are the branches. Whoever remains in me and I in him will bear much fruit, because without me you can do nothing.

Early Christian Good Shepherd Sarcophagus c390CE detail shepherd

Sarcophagus of Junius Bassus c359 CE 4x8' marble, St. Peter's, Rome, Italy, Early Christian
typological exegesis

Abraham and Isaac Peter Arrested for Preaching after Jesus's Death Christ Enthroned Christ before Pontius Pilate Christ before Pontius Pilate
Misery of Job Fall of Man
(Adam and Eve)
Christ's Entry into Jerusalem Daniel in the Lion's Den St. Paul Lead to His Martyrdom

Caelus, the sky god. 



The Arch of Constantine 312-315 CE Rome,
The top Roundels depict Hadrian Hunting Boar 
and Sacrificing to Apollo sculpted c 130-130 CE
bottom is of Constantine 
addressing the Senate  c 312-315   3' tall