Classic, Golden Age of Perikles, 480-350 BCE (450 BCE)
Late Hellenism 350-100 BCE (350-100 BCE)
Roman Empire 100BCE-315 CE
Roman Empire- 200 B.C.- 315 C.E.
Early Christian/Byzantine 315-750 C.E  (some sources say the Byzantine style survived all the way to 1450)
Romanesque 800-1150 C.E.
Gothic 1150-1350 C.E.

The Acropolis


Panathanaic Celebration
Panathanaic Procession

Theater of Dionysos (South Slope)
Festival of Dionysos is in March
14,000-17,000 attend

Latin tragoedia, 
from Greek tragOidia, 
from tragos - goat 
(akin to Greek trOgein to gnaw) + aeidein to sing -- ODE

Mnesikles, Propylea c437BCE
Kallikrates, Nike Temple c427BCE

Fig. 495 Temple of Athena Nike, 427-424 BCE 
Acropolis, Athens, 

Left: Fig. 605 Nike, Marble n/a Height 42 in. c. 410-407 BCE From the balustrade of the Temple of Athena Nike. Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece

Mnesikles, Propylaia c437BCE 
propylon: gateway
front approach
also called the Pinakotheke
museum: home of the muses

Athena Promachos


Iktinos and Kallikrates The Parthenon c450 BCE Athens, Greece 
17:8 ratio
Pythagorean ratios 6:8, 9:12
Doric Order

Fig. 493 
Corner of the First Temple of Hera, c. 550 BCE 
Located in Paestum, Italy, 
Period/Style name is: Classic Greek


Fig 412 Three Goddesses? (Hestia, Dione, and Aphrodite?) (Possibly the Three Fates) (The Elgin Marbles)
from the East pediment of the east pediment of the Parthenon
sculptor: Phidias ? c438-432 BCE tallest figure 4'5"

Apollo's Lead Horse? (Selene's Horse?) (The Elgin Marbles)
from the East pediment of the east pediment of the Parthenon by Phidias ?
c438-432 BCE approximately 2' tall

Pheidias Panathenaic Frieze

Detail of the Panathenaic Procession 
(The Elgin Marbles
from the North frieze of the Parthenon Phidias? 
c438-432 BCE approximately 3' 6" tall

Pheidias Panathenaic Frieze
A methodological approach in art history which focuses on the cultural back ground of an art object.  Unlike modern connoisseurship, contexualism utilizes the literature, history, economics, and social developments (among others) of a period, as well as the object itself, to explain the meaning of an artwork.

Context can also be the physical environment it is placed in.

These sculptures are in situ.

Phidias? Detail of the Panathenaic Procession (The Elgin Marbles)
from the north frieze of the Parthenon
 c438-432 BCE approximately 3' 6" tall
(now in the British Museum) Classic Greek

Fig. 402  Maidens and Stewards, Marble Height approx. 43 in. 447 438 BCE
Fragment of the Panathenaic Procession from the east frieze of the Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens.
(now in the Louvre) Classic, Greek


The frieze and entablature with sculptures in situ

Phidias Lapith Fighting a Centaur,
metope relief from the Doric frieze 
on the south side of the Parthenon c440 BCE

eurythmic gesture



Mnesikles, Erechtheion (Erechtheum) 430-405 BCE

Mnesikles, Erechtheion 430-405 BCE

Porch of the Maidens
Caryatid Porch
 Pronunciation: "kar-E-'a-t&d, 'kar-E-&-"tid
 Function: noun
 Inflected Form(s): plural -ids or cary·at·i·des /"kar-E-'a-t&-"dEz/

Etymology: Latin caryatides, plural, from Greek karyatides priestesses of Artemis at Caryae, caryatids, from Karyai Caryae in Laconia

 : a draped female figure supporting an entablature