Impressionists or Peeping Toms?
Paris During the Last Half of the 19th Century

Chronology

1839           Daguerreotype presented
1848           Communist Manifesto
1848-52     Revolution in Europe
1859           Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species
1863            Salon of Refusals
1861-65     American Civil War
1891           First movie camera patented
1884           1st Salon des Artistes Independants (Salon of Independents)
1886           8th and last Impressionist exhibition
1900           Sigmund Freud, The Interpretation of Dreams
1903           First flight of the Wright brothers
1905-15     Albert Einstein's Theory of Relativity
1914-18     World War I


 
Edgar Degas
At the Ballet, 
or 
Woman with a Fan
1883-1885 
Pastel 26"x20" 
Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphia, PA  USA
French Impressionist
 

Pastels

  • Considered not to be intense or saturated but in the impressionists hands it can often be made by combining earth or chemical pigments with gum arabic as the binder (wax is the binder in crayon)
Edgar Degas
At the Ballet, 
or 
Woman with a Fan 1883-1885 
Pastel 26"x20" 
Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphia, PA  USA
French Impressionist

Hiroshige Ando 
Ushimachi, Takanawa From "One Hundred Famous Views of Edo" 1857
Woodblock print 13 1/4 x 8 5/8 in. The Brooklyn Museum

 


 
Harvest of Death / O'Sullivan Edgar Degas
At the Ballet, 
or 
Woman with a Fan 1883-1885 
Pastel 26"x20" 
Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphia, PA  USA
French Impressionist

Timothy H. O'Sullivan, photographer; 
Alexander Gardner, printer 
American, negative July 4, 1863; 
print 1866 
Albumen print by Alexander Gardner 
Image: 7 x 8 11/16 in. 

 


 
 
 
 
ColorWheel
Color
An element of art which has three properties.
  • Hue, which is the name of a color. For example,  red, yellow, blue. (primary, secondary, tertiary)
  • Value, which refers to the lightness or darkness of a color.
  • Intensity, which refers to the purity of a color.  For example, pure or saturated red or dull red.
Hue
Hue refers to the name of a color.  Eg.  Red, blue, and purple.

 
 
 
 
 
Value in Color
When describing a hue, value refers to its lightness or darkness.  Value changes are often obtained by adding black or white to a hue.
Value in Color
When describing a hue, value refers to its lightness or darkness.  Value changes are often obtained by adding black or white to a hue.

Tint: white is added and it bcomes a pastel

Shade: black is added and it becomes darker and less intense (desaturated)


 
 
 
Intensities of Green
ValueScale-Intensity

ValueScale-Intensity

Intensity
It is not always enough to know the hue of a color, since a color has many different shades.

Intensity is used to describe the saturation or purity of a color.    When a hue is strong, it is said to be high in intensity.  When a color is faint, dull and gray, it is said to be low in intensity.

 
 
ColorWheel

 
 

Edgar Degas The Ballet Rehearsal 1876 oil on canvas 23x33

 


Film Still from the Movie "Far from Heaven"


 

 
 
Edgar Degas
Morning Bath c1883 
pastel on paper 27"X13" 
Chicago,A.I. Impressionism 
Edgar Degas
Morning Bath c1883 
pastel on paper 27"X13" 
Chicago,A.I. Impressionism 

 
Edgar Degas
Le Viol, 1868-69. 
National Gallery, Washington, D.C.
32"x45"
French Impressionist

 
 
Pierre Auguste Renoir, 
Luncheon of the Boating Party 1881 
oil on canvas 4'x5'
French Impressionist
Pierre Auguste Renoir. 
Moulin de la Galette. 1876, 51"x69"
French Impressionist