TimeLine The Long 19th Century

1750  Industrial Revolution begins in western Europe with mining and textiles
1764  British control of Bengal
1770  Invention of steam engine by James Watt
1787  Sierra Leone founded as British colony for freed slaves
1789-1799 French Revolution
1807-1834 Trans-Atlantic slave trade abolished
1811  Reforms in Egypt by Mehemet Ali
1812  Failure of Napoleonic invasion of Russia
1814  Acquisition by British of Dutch South Africa
1820s  United States begins to industrialize with textile manufacturing
1820-1829 Greek war for independence
1827-1829 Reorganization of British rule in India; dev. of civil service, new legal codes
1830  Takeover of Algeria begun by France
1830  Formation of firmer Bantu governments in southern Africa
1834  Abolition of slavery in South Africa
1839-1842 Opium Wars in China
1850s  Development of railroads in India
1852-1853  British war with Burma; growing influence gained by British


1853  Perry expedition to Japan
1854  Expansion of French from Senegal
1854-1856  Crimean War
1857-1859  Second Opium War
1858  Professional baseball begins
1858     Takeover of Indo China begun by France
1859  Charles Darwin, Origin of Species
1859-1870  Italian unification
1860s  Japan begins to industrialize
1861  Beginning of British expansion in Nigeria;
1861-1865  U.S. Civil War
1864-1871  German unification
1867  Discovery of South African diamonds; increase in importation of Indian laborers 
1868-1912  Meiji Period in Japan
1869  Completion of the Suez Canal
1876  Ottoman constit., guaranteeing individual freedoms, setting up parliament
1876-1911  Porfirio Díaz president of Mexico
1877-1878  Russo-Turkish War; independence gained by new Balkan nations
1878  Expansion of British, French interior expeditions in West Africa


Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 
Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. 
Oil on canvas, approx. 12' 8" x 16' 103/4". Louvre, Paris. 
French Academic Painting

École des Beaux-Arts, 
in full École Nationale Supérieure Des Beaux-arts, school of fine arts founded (as the Académie Royale d'Architecture) in Paris in 1671 by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, minister of Louis XIV; it merged with the Académie Royale de Peinture et de Sculpture (founded in 1648) in 1793. The school offered instruction in drawing, painting, sculpture, architecture, and engraving to students selected by competitive examination; since 1968, architecture is no longer taught there. (http://www.britannica.com/)

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Apotheosis of Homer, 1827. 
Oil on canvas, approx. 12' 8" x 16' 103/4". Louvre, Paris.

Raphael School of Athens 1509-1510
Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican, Rome



Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 
Jupiter and Thetis, 1811
oil on canvas, 130 X 101" 

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Large Odalisque. 1814
oil on canvas, 35"x64" Louvre, Paris
French Academic/Orientalist 

The Moorish Bath, 1880
oil on canvas, approx. 3'x4'
San Francisco, Legion of Honor
French Academic/Orientalism

Ingres, Portrait of Paganini 1819
Academic Style

Delacroix, Portrait of Paganini 1832
Romantic Caprice #01


Portrait of Paganini 1819
Academic Style

Portrait of Paganini 1832
Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, 
Odalisque with Slave, 1842
French Academic/Orientalist
Eugene Delacroix, 
Women of Algiers in their Apartment.
oil on canvas 5'10"x7'6". Louvre
French Romantic/Orientalist

Titian (Tiziano Vecellio)
The Venus of Urbino, 1538 
Oil on canvas, Florence, 
Italian Renaissance

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, Odalisque with Slave, 1842
French Academic/Orientalist
Eugene Delacroix, Women of Algiers in their Apartment. 1834 
oil on canvas 5'10"x7'6". Louvre
French Romantic/Orientalist

Romanticism: Landscapes of the Mind 1780-1820

FRIEDRICH, Caspar David Cloister Cemetery in the Snow
1817-19 Oil on canvas 121 x 170 cmDestroyed 1945,
formerly in the National Gallery, Berlin
Shelley, Mary Wollstonecraft

Stevenson, Robert L
    The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
    Treasure Island

Stoker, Bram

Wilde, Oscar
    Picture of Dorian Gray

Bronte, Charlotte
    Jane Eyre

Bronte, Emily
    Wuthering Heights


William Blake Frontispiece from "Europe a Prophecy"
God as the Divine Geometer c1790


The Tyger

Tyger Tyger, burning bright,
In the forests of the night;
What immortal hand or eye,
Could frame thy fearful symmetry

In what distant deeps or skies.
Burnt the fire of thine eyes!
On what wings dare he aspire?
What the hand, dare sieze the fire!

And what shoulder, & what art.
Could twist the sinews of thy heart?
And when thy heart began to beat,
What dread hand! & what dread feet!

What the hammer! what the chain,
In what furnace was thy brain
What the anvil, what dread grasp,
Dare its deadly terrors clasp!

When the stars threw down their spear
And water'd heaven with their tears:
Did he smile his work to see
Did he who made the Lamb make thee!

Tyger Tyger burning bright,
In the forests of the night:
What immortal hand or eye,
Dare frame thy fearful symmetry!

From Songs of Experience



He who dwells in the shelter of the Most High
will rest in the shadow of the Almighty.
I will say of the Lord, "He is my refuge and my fortress,
my God, in whom I trust."

Surely he will save you from the fowler's snare
and from the deadly pestilence.
He will cover you with his feathers,
and under his wings you will find refuge;
his faithfulness will be your shield and rampart.

You will not fear the terror of night,
nor the arrow that flies by day,
nor the pestilence that stalks in the darkness
nor the plague that destroys at midday.

A thousand may fall at your side,
ten thousand at your right hand,
but it will not come near you.
You will only observe with your eyes
and see the punishment of the wicked.

If you make the Most High your dwelling --
even the Lord, who is my refuge --
then no harm will befall you,
no disaster will come near your tent.

For he will command his angels concerning you
to guard you in all your ways;
they will lift you up in their hands,
so that you will not strike your foot against a stone.
You will tread upon the lion and the cobra;
you will trample the great lion and the serpent.

"Because he loves me," says the Lord, "I will rescue him;
I will protect him, for he acknowledges my name.
He will call upon me, and I will answer him;
I will be with him in trouble,
I will deliver him and honor him.
With long life will I satisfy him
and show him my salvation."

for more on Blake go to http://members.aa.net/~urizen/blake2.html



Henry Fuseli  The Nightmare (Incubus) 1781-82
located in Detroit
Fuseli was born Swiss and then moved and worked in England

The Nightmare (Incubus) 1781-82
located in Freies Deutsches Hochstift,Frankfurt-am-Main.
English, Romanticism,
Fuseli was born Swiss and then moved and worked in England


Franz Schubert 1797-1828
Wav file

ERLKÖNIG - J.W. von Goethe

Wer reitet so spät durch Nacht und Wind?
Es ist der Vater mit seinem Kind;
Er hat den Knaben wohl in dem Arm,
Er faßt ihn sicher, er hält ihn warm.

Mein Sohn, was birgst du so bang dein Gesicht?--
Siehst, Vater, du den Erlkönig nicht?
Den Erlenkönig mit Kron und Schweif?--
Mein Sohn, es ist ein Nebelstreif.--

«Du liebes Kind, komm, geh mit mir!
Gar schöne Spiele spiel ich mit dir;
Manch bunte Blumen sind an dem Strand,
Meine Mutter hat manch gülden Gewand.»

Mein Vater, mein Vater, und hörest du nicht,
Was Erlenkönig mir leise verspricht?--
Sei ruhig, bleibe ruhig, mein Kind;
In dürren Blättern säuselt der Wind.--

«Willst, feiner Knabe, du mit mir gehn?
Meine Töchter sollen dich warten schön;
Meine Töchter führen den nächtlichen Reihn,
Und wiegen und tanzen und singen dich ein.»

Mein Vater, mein Vater, und siehst du nicht dort
Erlkönigs Töchter am düstern Ort?--
Mein Sohn, mein Sohn, ich seh es genau:
Es scheinen die alten Weiden so grau.--

«Ich liebe dich, mich reizt deine schöne Gestalt;
Und bist du nicht willig, so brauch ich Gewalt.»
Mein Vater, mein Vater, jetzt faßt er mich an!
Erlkönig hat mir ein Leids getan!--

Dem Vater grausets, er reitet geschwind,
Er hält in Armen das ächzende Kind,
Erreicht den Hof mit Mühe und Not;
In seinen Armen das Kind war tot.

English translation by Natalia MacFarren

Who rides through the night o'er woodland wild?
It is a father with his young child;
The boy lies folded, close in his arm
He holds him steady and safe from harm..

"My son, thou hidest thy face as in fear?"
"The Erl King father, see he is near!
With Crown and Sceptre and snow white shroud"
"My son, 'tis but a passing cloud."

"My gentle boy, Oh come with me;
I'll sport and play the day long with thee
And wondrous flowers shalt thou behold
And a garment shalt thou wear all of Gold."

"My father, my father, Oh dost thou not hear
What Erl-King whispers so soft in mine ear?"
"Nay, fear not, it is nothing my child,
The leaves but rustle sharp o'er the wild."

"Thou gentle boy wilt thou with me go
My daughters all pretty pastimes know,
My daughters nightly their gay revels keep,
They'll dance and they'll sing and they'll rock thee to sleep.
They'll dance and they'll sing and they'll rock thee to sleep."

"My father, my father, I feel sore afraid
See Erl-King's daughters in yon dark shade!"
"My son, my son, I see it full well;
The grey knotted willows bend to the gale."

"I love thee, child, in vain wouldst thou now be perverse,
For if thou'rt not willing, I'll take thee by force"
"My father! My father! His cold hand I feel
Erl-King has hurt me; With grasp of steel"

The fa-ther shudd'ring; gives spur to his steed,
Holds fast his darling and groans in his need,
He reached his home in doubt and dread,
Within his fond arms the child lay dead.


FRIEDRICH, Caspar David
Wanderer above the Sea of Fog 1817-1818

Caspar David Friedrich Arctic Shipwreck or Sea of Ice 1823


Strawberry Hill, located in Twickenham, was bought in 1747 by Horace Walpole and over the next 30 years developed into the first conscious translation of Picturesque principles of gardening and landscape into architecture. The building was worked on by five architects; William Robinson and Richard Bentley designed the exterior in the mid-1750's, Robert Adam built the central round tower in 1759, and John Chute of the Vyne and Thomas Pitt constructed interior rooms such as the Library, Great Parlor, and Gallery. While the exterior is the first example of a resurgence of Gothic style, the interior designers drew from models of old tombs in Canterbury and Westminster Abbey and an aisle in Henry VII's chapel. Strawberry Hill, because of its use of many different revived styles, is considered to have begun the Picturesque style.

Strawberry Hill, Twickenham, Middlesex, Thomas Pitt (1737-1793) 1759-62

J.M.W. Turner Burning of Houses of Parliment October 16,1834
(painted in 1835)

Houses of Parliament (1837-67) 
Sir Charles Barry and Augustus Welby Pugin

JMW Turner The Slave Ship 1840 35"x48"

GERICAULT,Theodore 1791-1824 Raft of the Medusa 1819 Paris,Louvre French, Romanticism


Theodore Gericault Raft of the Medusa 1819 
French, Romanticism

Theodore Gericault 
Study of Severed Heads c1819 
French, Romanticism


Theodore Gericault Raft of the Medusa 1819 
French, Romanticism

JMW Turner The Slave Ship 1840 35"x48"
English Romanticism


Francisco Jose de Goya y Lucientes 
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters 
(El Sueño de la Razon Produce Monstros),1803 
Plate 43 of Los Caprichos, 
second edition Etching and aquatint

Francisco Goya: The Third of May, 1808
painted 1814 
Oil on canvas, 8'9" x 13'4" 
Eugene Delacroix The Massacre at Chios 1824 
French Romanticism

Eugene Delacroix The Massacre at Chios 1824 
French Romanticism


Delacroix Barque of Dante 1822