Charlemagne's Empire, A.D. 800. This map shows Charlemagne's empire at its height in A.D. 800. The empire extended from central Italy north to Denmark, and from eastern Germany west to the Atlantic Ocean.
When Charlemagne died, his empire did not entirely survive with him. Instead it was divided among this three sons: Charles, Lothair, and Louis. These divisions would impact the eventual political divisions in Europe, in particular the division between France and Germany.



  • Black Plague (Bubonic and Neumonic Plagues)
  • Decline in population
  • Food surplus leads to low prices.
  • Low production of goods throughout Northern Europe.
  • City states on the Italian Coast do better.

  • Cosimo de Medici 1389-1464
    • Lorenzo de Medici 1449-1492
      • Giovanni (Pope Leo X) 1475-1521
      • Catherine (Queen of France) 1519-1589
    • Giuliano 1453-1478
      • Giulio (Pope Clement VII) 1478-1534
  • Giovanni Bocaccio 1313-1375 (Author of the Decameron)
  • Dante Alighieri 1265-1320 (Author of the Divine Comedy)

Dante Alighieri 1265-132 (Author of the Divine Comedy)
Domenico Di Michelino
Dante and the Three Kingdoms 1465

The painting was made in 1465 to commemorate
Dante's 200th birthday

Florence Cathedral (The Duomo)
Arnolfo di Cambio, Francesco Talenti, 
Andrea Orcagna and others.

Begun 1296, redesigned 1357 and 1366.

Drum and dome by Brunelleschi 1420-36
campinalle by Giotto, Andrea Pisano 
and Francesco Talenti, c 1334-50

Overall plan is Romanesque
Interior Vaulting is Gothic
Dome is Renaissance
Facade is 19th Century


Lorenzo Ghiberti The Gates of Paradise,
Jacob and Essau
Florence, Baptistry Eastern Door, 1425-52

MASACCIO 1401-1428
Trinity with Donors c1428
S.Maria Novella 
16' tall 

What I am you will become what I was you are.
memento mori



David 1440 CE
Florence, Italy
Renaissance Period
David  1501-1504 CE
Florence, Italy
Renaissance Period

Doryphoros 450 BCE
Athens, Greece
Classical Period

Leonardo da Vinci 
Vitruvian Man, 
Study of proportions,
from Vitruvius's 
De Architectura
1492 Pen and ink, 
34.3 x 24.5 cm


Virgin & Child Enthroned,
from the Church of Santa Trinita, Florence
c 1280. Tempera and gold on wood, 12' 7"x7'4"
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Giotto di Bondone, 
Virgin & Child Enthroned, 
(Ognissanti Altar,) c 1310. 
Tempera and gold on wood, 
Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence