Linear Perspective


Demonstration of 1 point and 2 point perspectives
Linear Perspective

Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472)
Italian architect, humanist, antiquarian, mathematician, art theorist, "universal man" of the Early Renaissance. Alberti has been called the prophet of the "new, grand style" in art, Renaissance, and Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) its inaugurator. His influential treatise Della pittura (On Painting) was the first modern manual for painters. It was circulated in manuscript until 1540, when it was first printed.



 
 
 
 
 


Masaccio, Trinity with Donors, c1428
Santa Maria Novella, Florence
Perspectives:
linear 
idealism
neoplatonic
humanistic
theological

 
images of the reconstructed 3D model

 
 
 

 
 


Gustave Caillebotte, Paris a Rainy Day, 1877
 
 


 Giotto St. Francis Driving out the Demons of Arezzo
Assisi


 
 

Classic, Golden Age of Perikles, 480-350 BCE (450 BCE)
Late Hellenism 350-100 BCE (350-100 BCE)
Roman Empire 100BCE-315 CE
Early Christian/Byzantine 315-750 C.E  (some sources say the Byzantine style survived all the way to 1450)
Romanesque 800-1150 C.E.
Gothic 1150-1350 C.E.
Proto Renaissance 1280-1350
Renaissance 1300-1600
Renaissance Mannerism 1535-1600
Baroque 1600-1750
 


Virgin and Child
from the Auvrgne region, France. c1150-1200
Oak with polychromy, height 31", 
French Romanesque 

Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned c1280
Italian Gothic, sometimes called proto Renaissance, 
sometimes called Early Renaissance, 

 

Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned c1280
Italian Gothic, sometimes called proto Renaissance, 
sometimes called Early Renaissance,
Gothic and Late Gothic Paintings Altar or panel paintings (600's-1300's)
Patron
Guild and Apprentice System

How Paintings were commissioned and bought.

  • The patron and artist negotiate the price.  The cost is established by how many figures are present in the painting, the size, the amount of gold leaf and the colors that are used.
  • The artist orders a wood panel from a furniture maker. It is very important that the wood is "gassed out." This means the older the wood, the more petrified, the better. This can be the most expensive part.
  • Panel is prepared by apprentices or an assistant by coating it with gesso.  Gesso is a mixture of chalk or calcium carbonate (marble dust) mixed with rabbit skin glue.
  • Now the paint is made. For tempera, egg yolk is mixed with ground-up minerals (sometimes even semiprecious stones) to make a very durable paint.
  • When all this is done and the painting is complete, there is a procession from the artist's studio to the church.


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    Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned c1280
    Italian Gothic, sometimes called proto Renaissance, 
    sometimes called Early Renaissance,

    space,  picture plane, and overlapping


    Cimabue, Madonna Enthroned c1280
    Italian Gothic, sometimes called proto Renaissance, 
    sometimes called Early Renaissance,

    Giotto, Ognissanti Madonna c1310
    Italian Gothic, sometimes called proto Renaissance, 
    sometimes called Early Renaissance,

     
     
     
     
     


    chiaroscuro

     

    Masaccio. Tribute Money, and Expulsion, fresco c1427 
    Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine Florence, Italy, Italian Renaissance

     
    o
    Masaccio. Tribute Money, fresco c1427 
    Brancacci Chapel, Santa Maria del Carmine Florence, Italy, 
    Italian Renaissance

    Matthew 17 and 22


     

     
    linear perspective
    atmospheric perspective
    aerial perspective
    sfumato
    chiaroscuro

    neoplatonic
    humanistic
    theological
    classical

    St. Augustine,
    City of Man/City of God
     
    b. Nov. 13, 354, Tagaste, Numidia [now Souk Ahras, Algeria]
    d. Aug. 28, 430, Hippo Regius [now Annaba, Algeria]
    also called SAINT AUGUSTINE OF HIPPO, original Latin name AURELIUS AUGUSTINUS feast day August 28, bishop of Hippo from 396 to 430, one of the Latin Fathers of the Church, one of the Doctors of the Church, and perhaps the most significant Christian thinker after St. Paul. Augustine's adaptation of classical thought to Christian teaching created a theological system of great power and lasting influence. His numerous written works, the most important of which are Confessions and City of God, shaped the practice of biblical exegesis and helped lay the foundation for much of medieval and modern Christian thought.

     
     
     


    chiaroscuro

    Leonardo, Virgin and St. Anne with the 
    Christ Child,1510 Oil on wood, 
    168,5 x 130 cm Italian Renaissance

    sfumato
    aerial perspective
    atmospheric perspective

    Leonardo, Virgin and St. Anne with the 
    Christ Child,1510 Oil on wood, 
    168,5 x 130 cm Italian Renaissance


    Leonardo da Vinci, Last Supper, 1495-7 Milan, Italy Santa Maria delle Grazie


     



     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

    Andrea Mantegna, 
    The Dead Christ, c1490-1501, 
    tempera on canvas 20"x31" 

    foreshortening

    The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion
    by Leo Steinberg


     

     


    Albrecht Durer, Alberti's Veil c 1527 woodcut 3"x8.5"



    MASACCIO 1401-1428
    Trinity with Donors c1428 
    Florence,S.Maria Novella 16' tall fresco
    Jan van Eyck Arnolfini Wedding 1434
    oil and tempera, 33x22.5" 
    London National Gallery

     
     
     
     


    Jan van Eyck Arnolfini Wedding 1434 oil and tempera on oak 82x60cm
    Craig Harbison.  "Jan van Eyck: The Play of Realism."  (London: Reaktion Books,) 1995.